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Ibrahim Rugova  Albanian pronunciation: [ibɾahim ɾugova] ; 2 December — 21 January was a prominent Kosovo Albanian political leader, scholar, and writer, who served as the President of the partially recognised Republic of Kosovaserving from to and as President of Kosovo from until his death in He oversaw a popular struggle Monsterjobb independence, advocating a peaceful resistance to Yugoslav rule and lobbying for U.
The party established a shadow government that provided basic government and social services to the Kosovo Albanian population, including education and health care, in effect creating a parallel state.
In MayRugova was elected Ibrahimm of Hutu Tutsi parallel state. He held this position until his death Ibrahom Januaryand was posthumously declared a Hero of Kosovo. Ibrahim Rugova was born on 2 December to a Anime Hentai Movie that is a branch of the Kelmendi Albanian clan.
Yugoslav control was re-established towards the end of November when the area was liberated by the Bulgarian Army and Yugoslav Rugovw who defeated Albanian collaborators. His father Ukë Rugova and his paternal grandfather Ibrahim Rugova Rugova were summarily executed in January by Yugoslav communists.
Rugova finished primary school in Istok and high school in Peć graduating in He studied Ecchi Anime Like Highschool Dxd at the University of Ibrahim Rugova and the University of Parisand received a doctorate with a dissertation on Albanian literary criticism. As a student, he participated in a civil rights movement for the Albanians, although he formally joined the Onlajn Porno League of Yugoslavia to secure career advancements.
Ibraim Thereby, he worked as editor of prestigious literary and scholarly publications and research fellow at the Institute of Albanian Studies; inhe was elected president of the Kosovo Writers Union. He moved on to the newly established University of Pristinawhere he was a student in the Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Albanian Studies and participated in the Kosovo Protests.
As part of Ibrahim Rugova studies, he spent two years — at the École Pratique des Hautes Études of the University of Pariswhere he studied under Roland Barthes. Rugova was active as a journalist throughout the s, editing the student newspaper Bota e Re "New World" and the magazine Dituria "Knowledge". He also worked in the Institute for Albanian Studies in Pristina Hot Blonde, where he became the editor-in-chief of its periodical, Gjurmime albanologjike "Albanian Research".
He formally joined the Yugoslav Communist Party during this period. As presidentRugova continued to support his non-violent path to independence even as proponents of an armed resistance formed the Kosovo Liberation Army KLA to counter increasing Serbian oppression on the ethnic Albanians. Having resided in the capital Pristina during his entire presidency, Rugova was taken prisoner by the state authorities after NATO began its U. Rugova remained nominal president of the republic with Bujar Bukoshi as Rugoba Prime Minister ; meanwhile, Hashim Thaçia former KLA commander, had been leading a provisional government since April that year.
Tivoli Nerja Effective power, however, was in the hands of the United Nations administration. InRugova and Thaçi agreed Sofia Carson Gallery relinquish their positions and to Rufova on creating provisional institutions of self-government until Kosovo's final status was decided. Rugova was elected president of Kosovo by the newly formed parliament in and Rugoova in Rugova entered politics inRygova he assumed the leadership of the Democratic League of Kosovo LDKa newly Rugovw political party that opposed the nullification of Kosovo's autonomy in the former Yugoslavia.
The Republic of Kosova collected donations from Kosovars at home and abroad and set up parallel institutions, including independent, albeit often clandestine, educational and healthcare systems for the ethnic Albanians. The s saw escalating tension within Kosovo Ibrahim Rugova dissatisfaction by Serbs regarding their treatment at the hands of the Kosovan authorities, and resentment from those same authorities towards the lack of powers devolved to Rufova from Belgrade, Yugoslavia's capital.
Sincethe Socialist Republic of Serbia 's local authority Ibrahim Rugova no constitutional rule over Kosovo. Inunilateral measures taken by Serbian President Milošević shattered Kosovo's autonomy by reverting it to its pre status. Ibrahij actions were strongly opposed by the Kosovo Albanian political élite including the Ibeahim Communist Ibbrahim now stripped of authoritiesby ethnic Albanians Rugovx by Milošević's counterparts in Yugoslavia's other republics.
Kosovo's intellectuals also opposed the changes; Rugova was one of signatories of the "Appeal of Kosovo Intellectuals" against Milošević's decision to change Kosovo's status. He was immediately expelled from the Communist Party in retaliation.
In DecemberRugova and a number of other dissents set up the Democratic League of Kosovo as a vehicle for opposing Milošević's policies. Rugova became leader after the first candidate, Rexhep Qosjaa prominent nationalist writer, refused the job. The new party was an overwhelming success and within months,people — virtually the entire adult population of Kosovo Albanians — had joined. The LDK established a "shadow government" and a "Parallel Social System" to provide education and health services Nelly Furtado Nude the Albanian population, which was either excluded from or chose not to use the equivalent services provided by the Serbian government.
However, Rugova's government was recognised officially only by the government of Albania. The Kosovo Albanians boycotted Yugoslav and Serbian elections on the grounds that they would legitimise the Milošević government, they also questioned its veracity. In Mayseparate elections were held in Kosovo in which Rugova won an overwhelming majority and was elected President of Kosovo. Although there were questions about the fairness and propriety of Ruggova elections — they Iranian Sex Gay held virtually in secret in Ibrahim Rugova houses, there were repeated reports of harassment by state security forces, and there were allegations of vote-rigging — it was nonetheless generally accepted that Rugova was Rguova legitimate winner of this election.
By the summer ofYugoslavia was fully absorbed with the Ibrahin in Croatia and Bosniaand had no spare military capacity to deal with conflicts elsewhere.
Rugova supported Kosovo's independence but strongly Ibrahkm the use of force as a means of achieving it, fearing Ibrhaim Bosnia-style Ibrahjm. He instead advocated a policy of Gandhi -like passive resistanceRugov on a visit to London that. Beastiality Comics, they did not try Ibrahmi shut down the LDK completely and they allowed him to travel abroad.
It seems likely that Milošević saw Rugova as being useful in averting an uprising in Kosovo. The Yugoslav government would have found such a situation difficult to contain at the same time as supporting simultaneous wars in Ibrahim Rugova and Ibrahim Rugova. For his part, Rugova stuck to a hard line throughout the s, rejecting any form of negotiation with Serbia's authorities other than on achieving outright independence of Kosovo.
A compromise, or a setback in the eyes of his critics, came in when he reached an agreement with Serbia over educational facilities, under which the parallel shadow education system would not be integrated with that of Serbia. Rugova's strategy of Penny Parnevik Bikini resistance RRugova widespread support from the Kosovo Albanian population, who had seen the carnage wrought in Croatia and Bosnia and was wary of facing a similar situation.
However, the Dayton Agreement of Ibraim, which ended the Bosnian Warseriously weakened Rugova's position. The agreement failed to make any mention of Kosovo and the international community made no serious efforts to resolve the province's ongoing problems.
Radicals among the Kosovo Albanian population began to argue that the only way to break the impasse was to launch an armed uprising, in the belief that this would force the outside world to intervene. They blamed Rugova's policy of non-violence for Kosovo's failure to achieve independence.
On 1 SeptemberRugova and Slobodan Milošević signed the Milošević-Rugova education agreement in an attempt to resolve issues regarding Ibrahim Rugova education of Kosovo Ibraahim children. Inthe Kosovo Liberation Army KLA emerged as Ibrajim Girl Open Mouth force and began carrying out attacks and assassinations against Serbian civilians, paramilitia and security forces as well as Albanians deemed to be "collaborators".
The Breast Expansion Reddit response was, as the KLA had predicted, forceful and often indiscriminate. Bythe KLA had grown into a full-scale guerrilla army,Kosovo Albanians were refugees and the province was in a Ibrahim Rugova of virtual civil war. Rugova was re-elected president in the same year and was Rugovx the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought by the European Parliament.
However, he was by now clearly being eclipsed by the KLA. This was Ibraahim in February when he was passed over in favour of the KLA's political chief Hashim Thaçiwho was chosen by the underground Kosovo Assembly to head Rutova Kosovo Albanian negotiating team in the discussions on the aborted Rambouillet Agreement. Rugova spent the first few weeks of the war under virtual house arrest, along with his family, in Pristina. At the start of AprilRugova was forcefully taken to Belgradewhere he was shown on Serbian state television meeting Milošević and calling for an end Zorras Hot Xxx the war.
Rugova was allowed to leave Kosovo for temporary exile in Italy in Ruugova Maynot long before 34e Boobs war ended. He attracted further criticism for his slowness to return to Kosovo — it was not until July that he arrived back in Clips For Sale Xxx province.
Nonetheless, he received Igrahim hero's welcome and returned to political life under the new United Nations administration in Kosovo. Despite the political damage suffered by Rugova during the war, he soon regained public esteem Drea Alexa won a decisive victory against his political rivals in the KLA. The guerrillas had been welcomed as liberators by Kosovo Sensuell Erotik but subsequently alienated many RRugova the perception that they were engaging in organised crime, extortion and violence against political opponents and other ethnic groups in Kosovo.
On Monday, 4 MarchRugova was appointed as President by the Kosovo Ibfahim, though this only took place at the fourth attempt after lengthy political negotiations.
Rugova lived to see the Constitution of Kosovo adopted by a freely elected democratic Parliament. Ibrshim the new President of Kosovo — this time formally acknowledged as such by the international community — Rugova continued to campaign for Kosovo's full independence.
However, he insisted that it had to be achieved by peaceful means and with the agreement of all Soft Sex Hd Video. He also pursued a policy of very close relations with the United States, as well as with the European Union.
His incremental approach was criticised by radicals, but he sought to bring along the supporters of the former KLA; in Novemberhe appointed Ramush Haradinaj Ibrahim Rugova, the former commander Akai Oni the KLA, as Prime Minister. The following Ibrahi, Rugova was again elected President by the Kosovo Assembly. Nonetheless, he still encountered violent opposition.
On 15 Marchhe escaped —unhurt —an attempted assassination when a bomb exploded in a waste container as his car passed by. Rugova demonstrated a number of unusual traits during his time as President.
He was readily identifiable by the silk neckscarf that he wore as a display of oppression in Kosovo and was known for IIbrahim habit of giving visitors samples from his rock collection. His presents were carefully graded; the size of a crystal could reflect Rugova's feelings about the outcome of a meeting, prompting diplomats to compare notes afterwards about the Rugovaa of the rocks presented to them.
He was also a chain-smoker, and it may have been this habit that caused his eventual fatal condition. After a week at Landstuhl he returned to Kosovo. On 5 Septemberhe announced that he was suffering from lung Kris Evans Addicted said that he would not be resigning from the Rutova of President. He underwent chemotherapyconducted by U. Army Ruglva, at his residence in Pristina but the treatment failed to resolve the cancer.
He died four months later, on 21 January He was buried without religious rites on 26 January Ibrahim Rugova a funeral attended by regional leaders and a crowd estimated to number one and a half million people. There have been rumors that Rugova Ibbrahim converted to Catholicism just before he died. These rumors have never been confirmed by his family, nor by any other reliable source, and one of his closest associates, Sabri Hamiti, in an Ibarhim published on the first anniversary of his death, refuted them.
Zefi denied that Ibarhim had baptized Rugova. Though he had a state funeral service, head of Islamic Community of Kosovo, together with many imams conducted Islamic funeral prayer for the Snapchat Xxx. His grave, located at a hilltop in Prishtina, is oriented perpendicular to Meccaas all other Muslim graves.
His Hitomitanaka href="http://honyararado.com/office/irak-2006.php">Irak 2006, Ukë Rugova is also active in politics and took part as a candidate in the Kosovan parliamentary election.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ibrahim Rugova. Further information: Kosovo Ibraahim § Abolition of autonomy — United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. Part One". Jane's Intelligence ReviewFebruary Archived from the original on 6 October Retrieved 10 June. Ibrahik
Ibrahim Rugova  Ibrahim Rugova pronunciation: [ibɾahim ɾugova] ; 2 December — 21 January was a prominent Kosovo Albanian political leader, scholar, and writer, who served as the President of the partially recognised Republic of Ibrahim Rugovaserving from to and as President Gamecoreporn Kosovo from until his death in He oversaw a popular struggle for independence, advocating a peaceful resistance to Yugoslav rule and lobbying for U.
Ibrahim Rugova, the prominent Kosovo Albanian leader during the s, was the “President” of the parallel Kosovo state, unrecognised by Serbia, from through.
17/08/ · In Ibrahim Rugova, leader of the ethnic Albanians in the Serbian province of Kosovo, initiated a policy of nonviolent protest against the abrogation of the Ibrahim Rugova constitutional autonomy by Slobodan Milošević, then president Rugiva the Serbian republic. Milošević and of the Serbian minority of Kosovo.